Louisiana August 6,7 2009

The Idea Place Louisiana Tech, Ruston

We do not plan to cover the indented activities.


Louisianna State Grade Level Expectations

M6: 16. Compare line graphs of acceleration, constant speed, and deceleration (PS-M-B1)
M6: 26. Describe and summarize observations of the transmission, reflection, and absorption of sound, light, and heat energy (PS-M-C1)
M6 32. Identify and illustrate key characteristics of waves (e.g., wavelength, frequency, amplitude)

M5 16. Observe, identify, and describe the basic components of cells and their functions (e.g., cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus) (LS-M-A1)
M7: 2. Compare the basic structures and functions of different types of cells (LS-M-A1)

H 1. Measure the physical properties of different forms of matter in metric system units (e.g., length, mass, volume, temperature) (PS-H-A1)
H 4. Conduct an investigation that includes multiple trials and record, organize, and display data appropriately (SI-H-A2)
H 33. Calculate velocity and acceleration using equations (PS-H-E2)
H 9. Describe and measure motion in terms of position, displacement time, and the derived quantities of velocity and acceleration (PS-H-E2)
H 17. Analyze simple harmonic motion (PS-H-E3)
H 25. Determine the relationships among amplitude, wavelength, frequency, period, and velocity in different media (PS-H-G1)
H 26. Evaluate how different media affect the properties of reflection, refraction, diffraction, polarization, and interference (PS-H-G1)
H 41. Identify the parts and investigate the properties of transverse and compression waves (PS-H-G1)
H 42. Describe the relationship between wavelength and frequency (PS-H-G1)

Domino Model of  wave propagation http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day15current/Domino_model_of_a_nerve/Domino_model_of_a_nerve.html

Wave propagation on a human nerve. Estimate the speed of waves along nerves by having people pass a squeeze from one person to another.
Discussion of signal propagation along nerves.

Types of Waves using a slinky http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day10waves/Slinky_in_hand.html

Vertical Slinky model the resonances of an open ended tube http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day10waves/vertical_slinky.html

Waves on a phonecord, http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day10waves/slowwavesonaphonecord2.html
Measure the speed of the waves, the period of a pulse traveling down the cord and back again, examine the direction of a reflected wave.

Phonecord Harmonics http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day10waves/harmonic_phonecord.html
Create the fundamental oscillation of a phonecord, measure its period and frequency. Create the second and third harmonics and measure their period and frequency.

Hanging Slinky http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day10waves/HangingSlinky.html
See how harmonics are made by two traveling waves moving in opposite directions. Observe nodes and antinodes of motion.
Use the hanging spring in the Idea Place.



Louisiana State Grade Level Expectations

E 22. Give examples of objects that vibrate to produce sound (e.g., drum, stringed instrument, end of a ruler, cymbal) (PS-E-C1)
E 28. Explain the relationship between volume (amplitude) of sound and energy required to produce the sound (PS-E-C1)
E 29. Compare the rates at which sound travels through solids, liquids, and gases (PS-E-C1)
E 30. Explain the relationship between frequency (rate of vibration) and pitch (PS-E-C1)
H 49. Describe the Doppler effect on sound (PS-H-G3)
H 50. Identify positive and negative effects of electromagnetic/mechanical waves on humans and human activities (e.g., sound, ultraviolet rays, X-rays, MRIs, fiber optics) (PS-H-G4) (PS-H-G3)
H 35. Analyze the Doppler effect of a moving wave source (PS-H-G3)

Head Harp http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/sound/headharp.htm
Wrap a string behind your head and over both ears, hold it tight at arms length in front of you. Pluck the string and listen to the pitch as the tension changes. Higher tension means higher wave speed on a string, and higher speed means a shorter time period for waves to travel back and forth along the string.

Ringing Aluminum Rod http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day11sound/ringing%20_Al_rod.html
Tap an aluminum rod with a hammer, notice how the nodal positions imposed by your fingers change the pitch of the vibration of the rod.

Tuning Forks Listen to the sounds produced by a tuning fork, a low pitch tone which is the correct frequency and a high pitch tone known as the clang tone.

Straw Oboe http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/RAFT/strawoboe.html
Make an oboe from a soda straw, notice how the pitch depends on the length. Adding a bell to one end makes the oboe louder because more sound escapes the tube.

Dance of the Sound Wave http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day10waves/dance_of_the_sound_wave.html
Do a line dance to show how parcels of air move in response to a sound wave in a tube.
H 7. Choose appropriate models to explain scientific knowledge or experimental results (e.g., objects, mathematical relationships, plans, schemes, examples, role-playing, computer simulations)

Stereo Sound:   Listen to a tube and determine where the tube was tapped.

How the ear works, Ear magazine A well illustrated article on how the ear works.

Listening to Gravity, the operation of the gravity and acceleration sensor in the ear cavity.

H 35. Explain how selected organisms respond to a variety of stimuli (LS-H-F3)

Resonant Rods: http://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/resonator/index.html
Use a series of rods of different lengths to show resonance modeling the ear and the retina.

Doppler Model http://www.exo.net/~pauld/workshops/ligo/soundcircles.htm
This sound wave image shows the doppler effect and also shock waves when a source travels supersonically.

Doppler ball Snack Place a buzzer inside a tennis ball and listen to it as it passes you, notice the doppler shift.


Reflection off an open end  http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day11sound/Reflections_on_an_open_end.htmlHow does a sound wave reflect from an open end of a tube?

Whirly, a singing corrugated tube http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day13music/Whirly.html
When a corrugated tube is whirled overhead, air flows through the tube exciting resonant oscillations of the tube.

Decibel Meter http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/decibelmeters/decibelsdistancetime.html
Use a decibel meter to measure the loudness of sounds.


Louisiana State Grade Level Expectations

6: 31. Compare types of electromagnetic waves (PS-M-C3)
6: 35. Determine through experimentation whether light is reflected, transmitted, and/or absorbed by a given object or material (PS-M-C4)
6: 36. Explain the relationship between an object’s color and the wavelength of light reflected or transmitted to the viewer’s eyes (PS-M-C4)

H 48. Compare properties of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum (PS-H-G3)
H 50. Identify positive and negative effects of electromagnetic/mechanical waves on humans and human activities (e.g., sound, ultraviolet rays, X-rays, MRIs, fiber optics) (PS-H-G4) (PS-H-G3)
H 26. Identify the elements present in selected stars, given spectrograms of known elements and those of the selected stars (ESS-H-D4)
H 28. Draw constructive and destructive interference patterns and explain how the principle of superposition applies to wave propagation (PS-H-G1)
H 32. Compare properties of electromagnetic and mechanical waves (PS-H-G3)
H 33. Solve problems related to sound and light in different media (PS-H-G3)
H 34. Compare the properties of the electromagnetic spectrum as a wave and as a particle (PS-H-G3)

Project a spectrum with an overhead projector: http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day6color/color_diffraction_grating.html

Spectra Explorations: Use a diffraction grating to explore spectra: http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day9spectra/spectra_exploration.html

Retina: Alan

See your retina

Peripheral Vision http://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/peripheral_vision/index.html
Observe the sensitivity of your visual system to motion color and detail as a function of angle.

Infrared light from a remote control http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/thermodynamics/infraredremotecontrol.htm
A remote control emits infrared radiation which can be detected by a digital camera.

Project a Rainbow with a CD: http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/CDspectrometer/projectrainbowcd/projectrainbowcd.htm
Reflect sunlight onto a white surface in the shade observe the rings of color.

Compact disk spectra: Look at a spectrum in a compact disk: http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/CDspectrometer/cdspectraintro.html
A small light source will show a spectrum when viewed in reflection off a compact disk.

CD spectrometer: How to build a spectrometer with a CD: http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/CDspectrometer/cdspectrometer.html
A long tube with a slit in one end cap can be combined with a compact disk to make a spectrometer.

Peel a CD: Take the metal off a CD and use it to observe spectra: http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/CDspectrometer/peelacd.htm
Inexpensive recordable compact disks can sometimes be peeled easily to remove the aluminized layer. When the aluminum is removed you can look through the compact disk and it will separate light into its spectrum.

Energy Versus Color using LEDs  http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day4+5light/light_energy_vs_color.html
Light emitting diodes convert the energy of one electron into one photon. Red LEDs require lower voltage to start emitting low energy red photons, green LEDs require slightly more voltage, and blue LEDs require the most voltage.

Soap Film in a can: http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day8interference/soap_film_in_a_can.html
A soap film across the mouth of a black film can reflects light from the front and back of the film, the reflections show colors due to interference of the light waves.

Permanent Oil Slick: http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/light/interference/permanentoilslick.html
A drop of clear nailpolish will make a thin film on the surface of water. This film may be lifted off the water with black paper. It will show interference colors.

Model Soap Film Interference 
Use waves drawn on 3x5 and 5x7 index cards taped together to model thin film interference.

Diffraction using pencils http://www.exo.net/~pauld/CILS/cilsdiffraction.html
Place two pencils together with the eraser of one next to the [pointed end of the other, Look through the slit between the two pencils at a small light source to see diffraction of light. Squeeze the pencils to change the slit size and the amount of diffraction.

Interference patterns
Shine a laser through two slits and observe the interference pattern

Two Slit Interference Model http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day8interference/twoslitinterferencemodel.html
Use waves drawn on 3x5 and 5x7 index cards taped together to model two slit interference.

Laser reflected off a CD http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/lasers/laseroffcd.html
A laser reflected off a compact disk will split into 3 or 5 dots of light. The angle between the center dot and the first dot to one side can be used to calculate to spacing between the tracks on the CD.

Particles as waves

Bohr Model of the atom using the gravity well http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/energylevelmodel/bohratom.html
An electron has wave properties. When the electron wave exactly fits around an atom it makes a standing wave and creates an energy level of the atom.

Grade 9 Structure and Properties of Matter
15. Using selected elements from atomic numbers 1 to 20, draw Bohr models (PS-H-C5) (PS-H-B3)

Energy Level Model of an Atom using a stool http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/energylevelmodel/energylevelmodel.html
The Height of the center of mass of a stool gives its gravitational potential energy, there are certain stable positions of the stool which have different energies, just as atoms have energy levels for electrons.

Videos to accompany the class


Domino fall



Mattress dominos

large Dominos Bravia
how it was made


Giant dominos

Action potentials look at 2:20 .

Types of waves on a slinky

constructive and destructive interference


Slinky (Ace Ventura)

Slinky Human

Tacoma narrows bridge collapse


Tidal Bore



Sounds makes beads dance


Tuning Fork Vibrations

In slow motion

Spectrum , fundamental, second harmonic, clang tone

Wineglass vibrations in slow motion




Hair cell responds to voltages



Shock Wave

Condensation reveals shockwave


San Francisco, I was there


Long program



Diffraction of light

ripple tank single slit diffraction

ripple tank two slits


Optional advanced topics

Computer Polarized Light  http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day8polarization/computer_polarized.html
Light is a transverse wave, the direction of oscillation of its electrical field wave is the direction of polarization.

Expansion of Light http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/astronomy/expansionoflight.html

Light propagates in a vacuum, the vacuum has electrical and magnetic properties, a dielectric constant and a magnetic permeability, that determine the speed of light. When the vacuum expands the wavelength of light also expands. This is why orange light from the big bang is now stretched to 1100 times longer wavelength into the invisible microwave portion of the spectrum.


Water Wave Origin http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/waves/waterwavesoil.html
Put a drop of olive oil onto water watch it spread into a circle, notice how waves lose amplitude inside the circle.

Who's Fault is it? http://www.exo.net/~emuller/activities/whose%20fault3.pdf
Make a line of people holding hands, send two waves down the line a hand sqeeze representing seismic p waves and a hand shake representing the slower  s waves. Note how the difference in arrival time can be used to find the distance to an earthquake.

Pasta Quake http://www.exo.net/~pauld/activities/geology/pasta_quake/pastaquake.html
Break pieces of spaghetti to model the energy in a seismic wave.

Laser Speckle

Laser Speckle Explainer http://www.exo.net/~pauld/summer_institute/summer_day1perception/laserspeckleperception.html

Poisson Spot 

Grade 6 PS-M-C6 Compare types of electromagnetic waves

Grade 9 PS-H-G3 Compare the properties of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum

Grade11/12 PS-H-G3 Compare the properties of the electromagnetic spectrum as a wave and a particle.

Grade11/12 ESS-H-D4 Identify elements present in selected stars given spectrograms of elements and of those stars

Scientific Explorations with Paul Doherty

© 2009

28 January 2009