Arkansas 2008-2

Exploratorium Activities by Paul Doherty that correlate with the Arkansas Science Standards for grades 7 through 9.

Magnetism

NS.1.7.1, Interpret evidence based on observation
ESS.9.7.3,
Compare earth's magnetic fields to the field of magnets,
ESS.9.7.5 Research ways in which people use compasses.

Where's North: Re-enact the discovery of the magnetic compass by hanging a magnet from a string.

Magnetic Globe: Explore the magnetosphere of the Earth.

PS.7.K.4, What is Magnetic?
PS.5.1.1 PS.7.3.4, PS.7.1.6,,Classify materials by properties: magnetic, non-magnetic
PS.7.1.7 Magnets attract and repel,
PS.7.3.5, Describe magnetic force versus distance
NS.1.6.4, Construct and intrpret tables of scientific data
PS.6.6.4, Give examples of forces: magnetic
EM.13.P.1 Determine the Strength of a magnetic field

Magnetic Poles: Discover the attraction and repulsion of magnetic poles, and use this to explore the magnetic poles of the earth.

Magnetic Atmosphere Model: Use magnetic pole repulsion to model the atmosphere.

Magnets Round the Rim: Place magnets side by side and observe attraction and repulsion.

MF.5.P.3 Compare the momentum of objects before and after they interact.,
MF.5.P.4, Solve perfectly elastic and inelastic collisions

Silent Collisions: collide magnets on a pencil observe elastic and inelastic collisions.

ESS.9.7.3 Compare and contrast earth's magnetic field with magnets

Magnetic Globe: Explore the magnetosphere of the Earth.

Magnetic Field of planets, which planets have magnetic fields and why.

PS.7.3.5 Describe magnetic force versus distance
PS.7.3.6 Construct a magnet by the touch, stroke method.,
ESS.9.7.4 Analyze evidence of sea floor spreading: magnetic reversal

Magnetic Tape: Use magnetic cassette tape to show how magnetic patterns are recorded for computers and by the moving plates of the earth.

PS.6.8.2 Investigate lines of force in magnetic fields

Black Sand Exploration, Magnetic sand is pulled into spikes when near a magnet. Magnetic Oscillators: An exploration that requires magnetic fields to understand.

PS.7.3.5, Describe magnetic force versus distance.

Force between Two Magnets, The force between two magnets can be measured with a digital scale.

PS.6.8.2 Investigate lines of force in magnetic fields
PS.7.3.5 Describe magnetic force versus distance.

Tracing Field Lines, Use compasses to trace out magnetic field lines.

Electrostatics

PS.7.1.5, Demonstrate methods of producing static electricity
EM.11.P.1,Calculate electric force using coulomb's law
PS.7.4.2 Classify electrical conductors and insulators.

Flying Hydra Use electrostatic repulsion to support an object against Gravity

Flying Tinsel Use electrostatic repulsion to support an object against Gravity

Flying tinsel piepan Use electrostatic repulsion to support an object against Gravity

Create static electric charge separation by rubbing Styrofoam with wool, then charge a metal pie pan by induction.

PS.7.1.5, Demonstrate methods of producing static electricity
PS.7.2.3, Demonstrate methods using electricity to make light heat and sound.
PS.7.4.2 Classify electrical conductors and insulators.

Electrophorus, create electrostatic charge by rubbing Styrofoam with wool and use it to charge a metal pie pan by induction.

Flying tinsel piepan Use electrostatic repulsion to support an object against Gravity

PS.7.1.5, Demonstrate methods of producing static electricity

Tape Electroscope Pull tape apart to create plus and minus charges then use it to determine the charge on other objects.

Electric circuits

Introductory Activities:

Tape Electroscope: Use Scotch Tape to determine the charge on an object.

PS.7.4.2 Classify Electrical conductors and insulators

Electrophorus: Separate charge with insulators, combine charges with conductors.

Multimeter Electroscope : Use a multimeter to detect the sign of an electric charge.

PS.7.4.3 Construct simple circuits from a Circuit Diagram.

Model voltage in a circuit using "pipe cleaners"

PS.7.8.1 Construct open and closed Circuits, Series Circuits, Parallel Circuits
PS.7.8.2 Describe and diagram open and closed circuits, series and parallel circuits
PS.7.8.3 Compare and Contrast open and closed circuits, series and parallel circuits

Circuit Board: Make a circuit board with a board, alligator clips and a battery holder.

Bulbs and batteries: Make parallel and series circuits with Christmas tree bulbs.

Battery dissection: Cut apart a carbon zinc battery (NOT Alkaline!)

Magnets round the rim: Model electric current using magnets.

Multi meters current: Use meters to measure the currents in circuits.

Meters voltage: Use meters to measure voltages in circuits.

Multimeter Electroscope : Use a multimeter to detect the sign of an electric charge.

Saltwater Battery: Create a battery with aluminum and copper in salt water.

Saltwater pentacell: Place 5 saltwater cells in series to light a lamp.

Hand Battery Use a multimeter to assure the current created by human hands touching aluminum and copper.

P.8.PS.1 Ohms law V = IR, and series V = V1 +v2, I1 = I2, R = R1 +R2, parallel V1=V2, I = I1 +I2, 1/R = 1/R1 +1/R2 (mistake in the standards equation)

Bulbs and Batteries : Make series and parallel combinations of bulbs and batteries.

Bulbs, batteries, meters: Measure series and parallel circuit voltages and currents with multimeters.

Glowing Pickle: Place 110V AC across a pickle to make it glow.

P.8.PS.2 Electric Power P = VI

Meters power: Use a meter to measure voltage across and current through a device to measure its power.

Aluminum air battery: Make a saltwater battery that can provide a fraction of an amp!

Electrostatic Motor: Move a large wood beam with electrostatic charge and induction.

P.8.PS.3 Electric energy E = Pt

P.8.PS.4 Step up and step down transformers

P.8.PS.5 PS.6.8.3 Electromagnets

Ammeter : Wind your own coil, put current through it to make an electromagnet and use it as an ammeter.

LS.2.7.6 Nervous system

Domino model of a nerve : Falling dominos model the propagation of nerve impulses.

PS.6.8.4 The relationship between electricity and magnetism

Circles of Magnetism: Use compasses to show the magnetic field around a current carrying wire.

PS.7.7.2 alternatives to fossil fuels, solar wind, hydro, nuclear

Solar Cell: Use meters to measure the voltage and current, so power, made by a solar cell.

Solar Brightness: Measure the brightness of the sun by comparing it to a lamp.

Solar Thermal Energy: Measure the energy output of the sun by the time it takes to heat an object.

Nuclear Fission human: Make a model of nuclear fission using humans throwing foam.

Nuclear Fission magnetic model: Use a pile of magnets that releases energy when triggered.

Chemistry (The physics part of chemistry)

PS.5.7.2 Create Models of common compounds

Water, Carbon Dioxide, Salt, Iron Oxide, Ammonia

Model of carbon dioxide: Use tennis balls and hacksaw blades to make a model of CO2

PS.5.7.4 Compare and contrast properties of compounds to those of elements that comprise them. Salt , water Carbon dioxide.

PS.5.8.1-PS.5.8.4 Atomic Theory,structure of atoms, protons neutrons, electrons

Energy Level Model: Model the energy levels of an atom by measuring them for a stool.

Bohr Atom Model: Use a gravity well to model the Bohr atom as standing waves of electron waves.

PS,5,7,5-PS.5.7.8 Demonstrate forming and separating mixtures

Elements compound mixture, solvent solute , solution

Physics

Newton's Laws

P.6.PS.6-9 Compare and contrast Newton's laws of motion, conduct investigations of laws 1,2,3

PS.6.7.1-PS.6.7.6 Newtons laws, 1,2,3 and applications to sports and transportation

Newton's Laws : Lessons on Newton's Laws

Frictionless CD airpuck: Illustrate Newton's first law with a frictionless airpuck made with a CD and a balloon.

Spring Scale Exploration: Illustrate Newton's third law with spring scales pulling on each other.

Candle in Freefall: Use F=Ma to understand a candle in freefall.

Ollie Physics: The physics of making a skateboard move upward:

Paper Airplane Science: Fly objects that show the balance of the force of gravity, lift and drag.

P.6.PS.1 How force affects motion in 1d, 2d including projectile and rotation

Particle Accelerator: Make a coin roll around in a circle inside a balloon.

Gravity Well: A well with hyperbolic sides can be used to model orbits.

Falling Coins: A coin dropped from rest falls with the same acceleration as one in motion.

Falling Rhythm: Hear the pattern of timing when a series of weights with different spacings fall.

P.6.PS.2 Motion is relative to a frame of reference.

P.6.PS.3-5 Compare speed, velocity and acceleration v = d/t and a = dv/dt, and graphs

Slow Waves on a Phonecord: Make a wave on a phonecord and measure its constant speed.

Accelerometer: Use the deflection of a weight and a protractor to measure acceleration.

Reaction Time: Catch a falling ruler and use the fall distance as a measurement of time.

P.6.PS.10 Use F = ma

Terminal Velocity: Drop coffee filters and measure terminal velocity.

Candle in Freefall: Examine the forces that change how a candle burns in freefall.

P.6.PS.11 The law of conservation of momentum

Silent collisions: Collide magnets on a pencil.

Energy

PS.7.7.3 Kinetic and Potential Energy

Bouncing Balls: A tennis ball dropped together with and on top of a basketball will bounce much higher than the height from which it is dropped.

P.6.PS.13 Conversion of energy mechanical, chemical,thermal , sound, light, nuclear

Burn a Peanut: Boil water with a burning peanut to measure the chemical energy content.

Energy versus color: The voltage needed for a blue LED is greater than a red LED since blue photons require more energy than red photons.

Solar Thermal Energy: Measure the power of the sun by measuring the time it takes to warm an object.

P.6.PS.14 Solve problems with KE 1/2mv^2 and Gravitational PE = mgh

Thermodynamics

P.5.PS.1 Distinguish, thermal energy, heat, temperature

Hand temperature: Line up people in order of ascending hand temperature.

Liquid CrystalThermometer: Watch heat flow using a liquid crystal thermometer.

Temperature Illusion: By taking a hand from cold water and a hand from warm water the temperature of a room temperature glass of water will seem different to each hand.

Cold Metal: Metal at room temperature feels colder than Styrofoam at the same temperature.

P.5.PS.2 Calculate q = mc dT

Waves

PS.7.8.4 Demonstrate the characteristics of waves: Wavelength, frequency,speed amplitude

Slow Waves on a phonecord: Make waves on a coiled phonecord, look at wavelength, amplitude and speed.

Dance of the sound wave: Line up 9 people and have them dance to the motion of a standing sound wave drawn with a white string.

PS.7.8.5 Longitudinal vs. transverse

Slinky in hand: Use a slinky on a taut monofilament line to model longitudinal waves.

PS.7.8.6 How energy is transported in: Seismic, Sound, Water, electromagnetic waves.

Domino model of a wave, when dominos fall what actually moves?

PS.7.8.7 How waves travel

Domino model of a wave, when dominos fall what actually moves?

PS.7.8.8 Reflection, refraction, absorption

Fresnel Lens and Laser: Trace the path of light from a laser through a large fresnel lens.

P.7.PS.1 Compare wave speeds through various mediums

Phone cord wave : Measure the speed of a wave on a phone cord.

P.7.PS.2 Explain Diffraction

Pencil diffraction: Look at a bright point of light through the slit between two pencils and see diffraction.

Interference: Shine a laser through two slits and see that light plus light can make dark.

Two slit interference model: Use index cards to make a model of how light waves add after passing through two slits.

Permanent Oil Slick: Deposit a thin layer of clear nailpolish on a black surface and see interference colors.

P.7.PS.3 Explain The Doppler effect

Doppler Model: Use transparent circles to model sound and the Doppler effect.

Mach 1 use transparent circles to model a shock wave.

P.7.PS.4 Lambda = vt, f = 1/T, V = f Lambda

Sound

P.7.PS.5 Perception of sound versus wave properties

Decibel meter : Use a decibel meter to measure the loudness of sounds.

The Dance of the Sound Wave : Have nine people dance the pattern of a standing sound wave.

Find the highest note: Use a website sound generator to listen to higher and lower pitches.

Harmonic phonecord: Shake a coiled phonecord to make the fundamental and higher harmonics of a standing wave.

Head Harp: Wrap a string around your head and over your ears to a hand held far in front of you, Pluck the string and listen to the pitch.

Ringing Aluminum Rod: Strike an aluminum rod and listen to the sounds, impose nodes and listen to the changing sounds.

Straw Oboe: Make a double reed instrument by cutting the end of a straw, then note the sound as the straw is shortened.

Electromagnetic spectrum

P.7.PS.6 Define light as waves and particles

What is light A historical survey with experiments.

Photoelectric effect

Spectra Explorations, Use a diffraction grating to spread light into a spectrum.

Polarized Light, Computer Liquid Crystal Display screens are sources of polarized light.

Fluorescent versus phosphorescence, Use an ultravioet light to excite fluorescent materials like tonic water and phosphrescent materials like zinc sulfide.

Infrared remote control, look at a television remote control with a digital camera to see the infrared light it emits.

P.7.PS.7 Explain making color with light and pigments

Color Diffraction Grating, take light apart into its spectrum.

Colored shadows, Use a shadow to remove a color of light to make the primary colors of subtractive light.

Colored shadows mirror Use mirrors to reflect colored light to add colors.

Color algebra The algebra of light and pigment.

The Anti Slit Light through a slit makes a spectrum, light blocked by a slat makes the spectrum of complementary color.

Color of Nature, A workshop on the colors found in Nature.

Three little pigments Use transparencies to show how subtractive primary colors can be combined to make other colors.

PS.7.8.9 -PS.7.8.11Electromagnetic spectrum and its uses

EM spectrum chart

PS.7.8.11 separate white light by refraction

Light box. use a box to create a beam of light then separate the colors of the light using a water prism.

P.7.PS.8 Separate white light by diffraction

Color diffraction grating: Use a diffraction grating to separate light into its colors.

Peel a CD Peel the metal off a CD and you will have a transmission diffraction grating.

Soap film interference A soap film separates light into its colors by using interference.

Soap film interference model Use 3 x 5 cards to model how a thin film creates colors by interference.

Soap film color A model explaining how soap film interference makes colors by subtraction .

P.7.PS.9 Illustrate constructive and destructive interference

Two slit interference model: Use 3x5 cards to model interference of waves.

Soap film interference model: Use 3 x 5 cards to model how a thin film creates colors by interference.

PS.7.8.11 Information transfer by sound, light,radio,microwave

Image formation

P.7.PS.10 Reflected images by concave, convex and plane mirrors

Image finding in a mirror: Point at an image in a mirror to find out where it is located.

Images in mirror pairs: Look at images in two mirrors.

Mirror and Right Left: Right and left in a mirror image.

Right and left in up to 3 mirrors: Observe the change of right and left handed images in 1,2, and 3 mirrors.

Cylindrical mirror image: Find the image made by a cylindrical mirror.

Ray racing: Use ray tracing to find an image.

Scan a Laser: Use a laser pointer to trace the light reflected by a mirror.

Finding Images Straws look through two straws to find the location of a point on an image.

P.7.PS.11 Refracted images made by concave and convex lenses

Scan a Laser lens, scan a pointer laser through a fresnel lens to observe how an image is formed.

Ray Tracing Trace rays to locate the position of an image.

Images, real and virtual in a lens: See the difference between real and virtual images.

Gravity and orbits

ESS.10.8.1 The effects of gravity on bodies in space

Gravity Well Roll balls in a curved funnel that models the motion of bodies in orbit.

Roll balls curved PVC

ESS.10.8.2 Gravity depends on Mass and distance

ESS.10.8.3-4 The moon and tides: High, low, spring, neap

Tide model Model the tides with paper and transparencies.

Tide model gravity well: Model tides in a gravity well.

ESS.10.8.5 Define Galaxy and Universe

Balloon Universe Model the expansion of the universe using a balloon.

Gravitational lens Create models of gravitational lenses by melting the bases off wine glasses with a torch.

MR Diagram Plot objects in the universe on a graph of mass versus radius.

City Universe Size The size of the universe mapped onto a city street.

City Universe Time Investigate space and time by visiting a city where light takes 10 years to move one block.

Expanding Universe, Plot galaxies on two transparencies, one 10% larger than the other to model the expansion of the Universe.

Expansion of Light When light travels through the vacuum as the vacuum expands, the wavelength of the light increases.

Solar System

ESS.10.7.1-2 Night and Day on earth and other planets

ESS.10.7.3 the year on earth and planets

The Dance of the day and the year, Have people dance to model the day and the year.

Mars calendar and clock Can you design a calendar and a clock for Mars?

ESS.10.7.5 The causes of the seasons

Self Centered Globe Place a globe in the sunlight with your location top dead center and the north pole pointing north and you will see the sunlight falling on the real earth.

ESS.10.8.6 Galaxy through telescope clarity, shape

Resolution Look at images at different resolutions.

ESS.10.8.7 The Milky way as a galaxy

ESS.10.8.8 The solar system in the galaxy

3D Big Dipper Model the positions of the stars in the big dipper in 3 dimensions.

3D Orion Model the positions of the stars in Orion in 3 dimensions.

Icy Bodies, dry ice "floating" on water creates tails of mist that look like comets.

Fluids

P.6.PS.12 The effects of forces in fluids: Archimede's, Pascal's, Bernoulli's principles

Feel the pressure, wear a glove and stick your hand underwater to feel water pressure.

Atmosphere Bar A steel bar 1 inch square and weighing 14.7 pounds will exert the same pressure on your hand as the atmosphere.

Blow between cans Place two cans on "rails" made of soda straws, blow between the cans to show Bernoulli's principle.

Curve ball A rotating ball moving through the air experiences a sideways deflection.

Aerodynamic thoughts An article examining why airplanes fly.

Buoyancy Float a boat made of aluminum foil and then watch the same foil sink when it is crunched into a ball underwater.

Surface Tension Coins can be made to "float" on the surface tension of water.

Icy Bodies, dry ice is denser than water and yet small pieces will "float" due to surface tension.

Water Glass Why does an index card stay attached to the bottom of an inverted water glass?

Condiment Diver A Cartesian diver can be made from condiment packets.

Atmosphere

ESS.8.7.1 Properties of the atmosphere

Rice model of the atmosphere, Dye rice with food coloring to make a model of the composition of the earth's atmosphere.

Atmosphere scale model Use a globe and plastic sheets to make a model of the thickness of 90% of the earth's atmosphere.

Atmosphere Bar A steel bar 1 inch square and weighing 14.7 pounds will exert the same pressure on your hand as the atmosphere.

Magnetic atmosphere model Stack five donut magnets on a pencil to model the pressure of the atmosphere versus height.

ESS.8.7.2 Movement of air masses,coriolis effect, jet stream, global winds

Coriolis fountain A water fountain that moves in a circle and squirts water toward the center of the circle illustrates the coriolis effect.

ESS.8.7.3 Solar energy input to the atmosphere

Solar Thermal Measure the energy output of the sun by measuring the time it takes sunlight to heat an object.

Simple Inverse Square Make a digital model of the inverse square spreading of light.

ESS.8.7.4 The effects of the oceans

ESS.8.7.5 elements of weather Temperature, pressure,wind speed and direction, humidity

Atmosphere pressure bar A steel bar 1 inch square and weighing 14.7 pounds will exert the same pressure on your hand as the atmosphere.

Feel the Pressure wear a glove and stick your hand underwater to feel water pressure.

Boyling Water Place water in a syringe and pull on the plunger to reduce the pressure until the water boils at room temperature.

Temperature model Fill a rat cage with ping pong balls and shake it to model the ideal gas law.

ESS.8.7.6 Instruments to measure the above properties

ESS.8.8.1 Causes and effects of global warming

Climate Change webcast several webcasts showing science activities about global warming

Weather future Long range climate forecasting.

Climate Explorer A workshop on the climate using the Exploratorium's climate explorer web pages

ESS.8.8.2 Patterns of currents Gulf stream,Atlantic currents California Current

ESS.8.7.8 Cause and effect of Thunderstorms,Tornados, hurricanes,drought, acid precipitation

Convection Currents Warm fluids expand, lowering their density so they rise as a convection current.

Pie Pan Convection Model convection with pearlescent soap in a pie pan over a hot plate.

Cloud in a bottle Make a cloud in a bottle by reducing the pressure in the bottle.

ESS.8.7.12 Effect of tilt of the earth's axis on climate

Self Centered Globe Place a globe in the sunlight with your location top dead center and the north pole pointing north and you will see the sunlight falling on the real earth.

ESS.8.7.13,14 and 20 Human impact on climate, acid rain and global warming

ESS.8.7.16-17 The water cycle, ground water

Water cycle video Examine a video of the water cycle on earth.

ESS.8.7.18 Cloud formation

Cloud in a bottle Make a cloud in a bottle by reducing the pressure in the bottle.

ESS.8.7.19 Greenhouse effect

ESS.8.7.20 volcanic dust,drought,meteor impact

ESS.9.7.1 The historic record of climate

Climate Past A webcast of activities about the historical record of climate.

 Scientific Explorations with Paul Doherty © 2008 7 January 2008